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Centaurus is the fourth planet from the suns, and is therefore sometimes referred to as Alpha Centauri IV. This is the nearest habitable planet to Earth, and was the first interstellar planet inhabited by humans.
The government of Centaurus is run by a council/presidency system. The planet is divided into 12 districts, each of which has a governor. Earch city has a mayor and there is one planetary president. All of these officials are elected by the people: the mayor by the people in the city, the governor by the people in the district and the president by the entire planet.
Problems, requests and concerns are first reported to the mayor who, if need be, reports to the governor who might take it to the next council/gubernatorial meeting.
The council meets an average of once a month, more or less often depending on the needs of the planet. At the meeting, the president precides and casts his vote on items. It is the president's job to report to the Federation council.
Along with the elected officials, there are various appointed positions such as treasurer, secretary of defence and the like. These positions are filled by people appointed by the officials at the different levels. Laws are passed by first bringing them before the Centaurian council and, if approved, a vote by the people of Centaurus. At the council level, a vote of 2/3 is needed to pass. A public vote only requires 51% for approval.
The people of Centaurus consist mainly of humans but there are also other races there as well. Centaurians are mainly farmers, miners and businessmen with a smaller population of scientists, politicians and other assorted careers.
The initial inhabitants were descended of the greeks, and for many generations the inhabitants of Alpha Centauri IV resembled that line. Today, Centaurus has lost its "Greek/Roman" look as countless different generations have migrated and procreated on Centaurus.
Centaurus maintains a small defensive force. It comes nowhere near rivaling StarFleet and is used mainly as a police force and for checking ship cargo as it's being imported and exported.
Although it has a population that shows otherwise, Centaurians generally still think of themselves as just a small Federation colony. However, there is some tourism trade on the planet which is slowly growing.
Tendencies as a Race
As a whole, Centaurians are quiet and laid back, compared to their contemporaries on Earth. Those that aren't usually go into politics or leave for other parts of the Federation.
There are few criminals on Centaurus. Anyone that does commit a crime is either locked up and rehabilitated or exiled, sometimes both.